Can I remove a selection from an option based on a prior option choice?

There actually isn't a built-in way to have an option dynamically remove a selection based on the choice of a prior option, but you can achieve this effect using conditions.

You can create multiple versions of the option that you want to differ based on what is selected in a prior option. Create one version of this option with associated selections for each set of choices that could show on the product page, and then use conditions to hide them initially and then show one of those options based on the selection of the prior option.

It's easy to make multiple versions of an option with different price sets. Once you create one version, you're able to duplicate it in the app admin, and then you can edit the duplicate and change the prices of it.

A handy article on how to set up conditions can be found here: Conditional Logic (Premium).